Stages and Grades of Bladder Cancer

The following stages are used to describe the location and extent of bladder cancer:

  • Stage 0: In stage 0, abnormal cells are found in tissue lining the inside of the bladder. These abnormal cells may later become cancer and spread into nearby normal tissue.

  • Stage I: Cancer has formed and spread to the layer of connective tissue next to the inner lining of the bladder.

  • Stage II: Cancer has spread to the layers of muscle tissue of the bladder.

  • Stage III: Cancer has spread from the bladder to the layer of fat surrounding it and may have spread to the reproductive organs (prostate, seminal vesicles, uterus or vagina).

  • Stage IV: Cancer has spread from the bladder to the wall of the abdomen or pelvis, one or more lymph nodes and/or other parts of the body, such as the lungs, liver or bones. 

Survival Rate

The 5-year survival rate tells you what percent of people live at least 5 years after the cancer is found. Percent means how many out of 100. The general 5-year survival rate for people with bladder cancer is 77%. The 5-year survival rate of people with bladder cancer that has not spread beyond the inner layer of the bladder wall is 95%. About half of people are diagnosed with this stage.

If the tumor is invasive but has not yet spread outside the bladder, the 5-year survival rate is 69%. If the cancer extends through the bladder to the surrounding tissue or has spread to nearby lymph nodes or organs, the 5-year survival rate is 35%. If the cancer has spread to distant parts of the body, the 5-year survival rate is 5%. 

It is therefore essential to detect bladder cancers early in order to optimize patient care as part of an initial diagnosis or monitoring, while reducing the costs associated with care.


United States

It is estimated that 80,470 adults (61,700 men and 18,770 women) in the United States will be diagnosed with bladder cancer. Among men, bladder cancer is the fourth most common cancer. 

It is estimated that 17,670 deaths (12,870 men and 4,800 women) from this disease will occur in 2019. Among men, bladder cancer is the eighth most common cause of cancer death.

CPT Codes ............. To Use Immunohistochemisty Codes