Current detection methods
The current gold standard for bladder cancer detection is cystoscopy
Cystoscopy is a painful and invasive procedure performed by a urologist
Confirmatory tests such as a CT Scan, intravenous, pyelogram (IVP), X-Ray, MRI, Ultra-sound, and urine cytology are also used but with limited utility.
*Babu et al., Mod Pathol. 2019 May;32(5):717-724